Saturday, May 23, 2020

Alzheimer s A Progressive And Fatal Disease Of The Brain

According to Alzheimer.net, forty-four million people, worldwide, are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. In the United States, one out of nine people over the age of 65 are diagnosed with this disease, and it ranks as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Two out of three people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s are women. Five point three million dollars are depleted every year from citizens diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s is â€Å"a progressive and fatal disease of the brain† (Lu Bludua, 2011). This brain disease leads to deterioration of the brain, which leads to dementia. Dementia is the â€Å"loss of memory and mental abilities severe enough to affect the daily life† (Lu Bludua, 2011). It begins at the memory control center of the brain, and then progresses to the portions of the brain that control reasoning, thinking, speaking, and seeing; therefore, it damages all parts of the brain. According to Lu and Bludau, Alzheimer’s influences many aspects such as the organ system, tissue, cells, and organelles. The organ system affected is the brain, which performs numerous crucial tasks. This disease impinges on the control center for all bodily functions. The vital body function that the disease affects in the brain consist of: thinking, seeing, hearing, breathing, and body movements. It hinders storing and making of memories and hinders the aptitude to feel emotions. There are three parts of the brain: the cerebrum, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. TheShow MoreRelated9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (Cjd). It Is A Rare, Degenerative1677 Words   |  7 PagesCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) It is a rare, degenerative but fatal brain disorder affecting very a small fraction of persons. The symptoms usually arise at the age of 60 and the person dies within a year. Many researchers believe that this disorder is the result of an abnormal protein known as prion. About 5-10% cases reported in the United States share a genetic basis where this form of dementia is caused by a mutation in the gene for the prion protein. Patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suffer fromRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1421 Words   |  6 Pages Introduction A brain deteriorates, slowly being engulfed by a mysterious disease. The neurons being cut off and destroyed by two abnormal structures. First memory is affected gradually getting worse. Then one is unable to think properly, reason, and lacks of self control. Gaps are formed in the brain s ventricles, due to the amount of dead tissue. In the end, it will lead to death. All of this may sound like something from a science fiction movie but infact its very real. These are all known possibleRead MoreThe Mystery Of Alzheimer s Disease1537 Words   |  7 Pagesdefinition, etiology, signs and symptoms, stages of disease progression, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is Ultimately fatal. Medical Definition. Alzheimer s disease is a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain s nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes. These neurons, which produce the brain chemical, or neurotransmitter, acetylcholineRead MoreThe Difference Between Dementia And Alzheimer s Disease1523 Words   |  7 Pagesthe difference between Dementia and Alzheimer s disease. Dementia is not a disease, it is a term used to describe Neurological conditions that involves some form of serious mental disorder such as memory loss, confusion, and impaired judgment. Alzheimer s is an actual disease, which is a form of Dementia and the most common type of Dementia; it is accountable for 60% - 80% of all cases of Dementia. Dementia has been around for many years dating back to the 1900 s. Dementia refers to a group of symptomsRead MoreSmoking: The Memory Killer. Over The Years, There Has Been1411 Words   |  6 Pagesmore harmful for your body and for your brain. When you smoke tobacco or marijuana, you are inhaling chemicals that go straight to your brain within a couple and starts to thin your cerebrum which can lead to memory loss. Memory loss is one of the early tell tale signs of Alzheimer s disease, which can be very fatal if dealt with improperly or for too long Also, when you buy a box of cigarettes or weed, you’re just buying a ticket to Alzheimer s. Alzheimer s can happen to you if you smoke too muchRead MoreTypes Of Dementia For Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Ateriopathy1786 Words   |  8 Pagesdementia include vasculitis, hypertension and lesions caused due to brain hemorrhage. An autoimmune disease, lupus erythematosus and inflammatory disease temporal arteritis can also damage blood vessels resulting in dementia. 3. Lewy body dementia (LBD) Lewy body dementia (LBD) is one of the most common types of progressive dementia sporadically occurring in individuals with no known familial history of the disease. The cells of brain s cortex and substantia nigra die while the remaining cells of substantiaRead MoreThe Reason I Chose Alzheimer s Disease1617 Words   |  7 PagesThe reason I chose Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as my Case Study is because it is very personal to me. My Mother-in-law, Marcia, was diagnosed with beginning stages of AD 5 years ago. We believe she went undiagnosed for a couple years before that. AD is a family disease that has a huge impact on an entire family. A year ago we moved in with my in-laws to help care for not only Marcia, but my father-in-law, Larry. Larry was Marcia’s sole caregiver and we noticed over the last couple of years takingRead MoreAlzheimers Disease945 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive neurological disease; it often attacks the brain tissues causing memory loss of one’s identity and regular behaviors. Statistics indicates that the rate of predicted people to get Alzheimer’s will increase briskly as time goes on. There are currently no cures for such disastrous disease, but there are currently approved treatments available that can help people within the early stages of Alzheimer’s. Once the disease is too far alongRead MoreA Glance Into The Mind Of Alzheimer s Disease1766 Words   |  8 PagesOctober 20, 2014 What would you do if you or a family member was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease? More than 5 million senior citizens in America are living with Alzheimer’s. In 2002, my grandfather was diagnosed with this condition. It has changed his life and my family’s lives ever since. Taking care of him is a bit challenging when you don’t understand the disease. Alzheimer’s is a progressive illness that is a type of dementia. Dementia is the decline in mental ability that is serious enoughRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Illness1399 Words   |  6 Pagesunderstanding of health and illness is variable. The way that a society views and interprets an illness deviates from the raw, natural interpretation made by biologists and physicians. It is believed that illness, a social phenomenon, is created out of disease, a biological phenomenon, through social construction. Social construction of illness emphasizes that the meaning of illness develops through in teraction in a social context. While the medical model assumes that illness is invariant in time and

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Statistics Related to Fathers Day

The history of the Fathers Day in the United States goes back over a century.   In 1909 Sonora Dodd of Spokane, Washington thought of the idea of Father’s Day. After hearing a Mother’s Day sermon she thought it would be appropriate to also have a day honoring fathers. Her father, in particular, deserved recognition. William Smart, Sonora’s father, was a Civil War veteran, farmer, and widower who had raised six children. The third Sunday of Smart’s birth month of June 1910 was chosen by Spokane as the first Father’s Day. National recognition in the U.S. of Father’s Day took some time. It was not until 1966 when President Lyndon B. Johnson issued the first presidential proclamation commemorating the third Sunday in June as Father’s Day that the holiday was officially recognized nationally. Six years later, in 1972 President Richard M. Nixon signed a law making Father’s Day a permanent fixture of the third week in June. The U.S. Census Bureau collects data on a wide variety of aspects of life in the U.S. They have several statistics relating to fathers. A few of these Fathers Day statistics follow below: Fathers Day Statistics There are approximately 152 million males in the United States. Of these about 46% (70 million) are fathers.About 16% (25 million) of all males in the U.S. had children younger than 18 in 2011.In 2011 there were 1.7 million single fathers. Of these men 5% were widowed, 19% were separated, 31% were never married and 45% were divorced.In 2011 there were approximately 176,000 stay-at-home dads. These were classified as married fathers who had been out of the workforce for over a year, with a wife who works outside the home. Approximately 332,000 children were cared for by these stay-at-home days, or on average, about 1.9 children per dad.In 2010 approximately 17% of all U.S. preschoolers were cared for by their father while mom was at work.As far as a gift goes for dad on Father’s Day, there are a number of options of items to buy and places to purchase a gift. All data is from the most recent year available, 2009:There were 7,708 men’s clothing stores in the U.S. where yo u could buy a tie.There were 15,734 hardware stores in the U.S. where you could buy an assortment of tools. Closely related to this gift category are the 6,897 home stores around the country.There were 21,628 sporting goods stores in the U.S., which stocked popular gifts such as fishing gear and golf clubs.Just over 79 million Americans reported eating at a barbecue in 2010. Due to Father’s Day falling during prime barbecue season, many of these people ate at a barbecue on the third Sunday of June. Happy Fathers Day to all fathers out there.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Growing Up African American Free Essays

I am a member of the African American group and I would like to tell you a bit about the group of when I am a part of. Let me start by saying that my African American group originated from Africa and growing up in America can be tough for people of my race, the African Americans. My group’s history is wide ranging spanning for many years and varying from region to region within the United States. We will write a custom essay sample on Growing Up African American or any similar topic only for you Order Now I remember when I was young I use to talk to my mother a lot and asked her many questions like â€Å"Why am I called an African American? She went on to explain that our race originally comes from Africa and we were part of a slave trade. From my mother I learned that we were slaves until a law was passed to give us freedom. I use to wonder when I was young if there were other people similar to me all over America. I also remember something my father told me once that African Americans live all over the country. My father told stories of how he used to go to an all black school could vote or sit in the front of buses. Being African Americans have faced several kinds of creation and consequence situations in the years they have been a part of the United States. In some places cheaper labor, longer work hours and terrible living conditions. Many people of the United States have made it almost impossible for groups of another race or Ethnicity to strive and live full happy lives. I have seen over the year’s situations of extermination in some parts, as well segregation, and expulsion. In school from some of my teachers, in social interactions like just walking through a store, and especially in the work place when they’ll even give me the chance to work because it doesn’t matter I go to get a job out here. There are some racist, even the Uncle Tom’s. I’ve done everything they ask and still I either get denied the job or they hire me and treat me like Growing up African American 3 trash until I quit, or they try to find a reason to get rid of me. Since, I don’t give them much reason to get rid of me due to my strong work ethic and performance; they usually try to break me down. Education plays an important role for most African Americans; however we are still way behind when compared to the White American which probably has a lot to do with the way some of us was brought up or our background. Regardless of the contributions made by the forefathers of black people, there is a hesitation of acceptance of the race that has been a focus of many groups the strive for freedom and justice for all, that has not yet been rectified. The same group of people was good enough to built the country is not always seen as good enough to live in the house next door. I believe because this country is made up of many different races and ethnic groups that are steadily growing in numbers. If different races are toco exist peacefully in the U. S. , it is vital that we all become educated on the history and culture of different races and ethnicities. According to the 2000 Census data for Lexington, MS the total population for 2000 were 2,025 male 965 and female 1,060 square miles 2. 45. Race: white (635); black or African American (1,362); American Indian and Alaska Native (1); Asian (13); and two or more races (14); and Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (40) (Fact finder Census 2000). Birthplace facts from the 2000 census data in Lexington born in the same state (1,706); born in another state (269); born outside the US (0); naturalized citizen (14); and foreign born, not US citizen (10). Some more 2000 census data in educational attainment population 25 and older was 1,206 in Lexington: high school graduates (299); some college, or associate’s degree (349); bachelor’s degree (111); and master’s, professional or doctorate degree (60). Some enrollment population 3 years and over Growing up African American 4 enrolled in school was 627: preschool and kindergarten (83); grades 1-12 (446); and college (98) (2000 census data). How to cite Growing Up African American, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

The Potao Famine Gone But Not Forgotten free essay sample

The Potao Famine: Gone But Not Forgotten Essay, Research Paper A hundred and fifty old ages ago in September, 1845, the Dublin local paper # 8220 ; Dublin Evening Post # 8221 ; , reported a # 8220 ; disease in the murphy harvest # 8221 ; . This turned out to be the murphy blight which destroyed 40 % of the harvest that twelvemonth and about 100 % the following twelvemonth. The devatation was known as # 8220 ; The Great Hunger # 8221 ; and resulted in broad spread famishment and mass out-migration to Britain and the Americas. As a consequence, the population declined from @ 8,295,000 to less so 6,000,000 in a few old ages. In 1845 a fungous disease called the late blight, appeared in the Irish murphy harvest with annihilating consequences. The late blight manifests itself in any portion of the works. Discoloration of the foliages accompainied by downy mold is sometimes the first mark. The tubers may besides be infected in the feild or in storage, with stain of the tegument, with a ruddy brown dry putrefaction widening to the tuber. We will write a custom essay sample on The Potao Famine Gone But Not Forgotten or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Later a slimy, disgusting smelling putrefaction may destruct the tuber. It is now known that the blight is caused by the fungus Phytophtora infestans an Oomycete which Bel ; ongs to the household Pythiaceae. This species is characterized by coenocytic mycelium and theproduction of biflagellate, motile zoospores. The fungus is heterothallic and can reproduce sexually in the presence of an opposite coupling type. Sexual reproduction follows fertilisation of an oogonium by an antheridium ensuing in the production of an oospore. Overwintering can be in the signifier of resting mtcelium or oospores. After sprouting both will ensue in the production of spore case which can shoot straight by agencies of a germ tubing or indirectly by agencies of the motile zoospores. Germination is followed by encystment and appresorium formation. Phytohphtora infestans besides affected potato harvests in the nor-east United States and Southern Canada every bit good as much of western Europe iin add-on to Ireland in 1845, but the effects were nowhere nigh every bit devestating as in Ireland because in those topographic points the diet was much more diversified and the people were non so dependent on the murphy. Although it happened 150 old ages ago, the Irish have non forgotten # 8221 ; The Great Hunger # 8221 ; . Because of the influence of conditions on the developement and spread of the late blight, the Irish Meterological Services continues to air warnings of conditions prefering the spread of murphy blight. Furthermore, the Irish people have gained a repute for lending forces and resources in aread of the universe presently confronting dearth, good out of proportion to the size and economic system of their little island.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Louis Simpsons The Battle Formalist Criticism

Introduction Born on 27th March, 1923, Louis Aston Marantz Simpson is one of America’s best know poets. He has won many awards in his field, including the 1964’s Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. The latter was in recognition for one of his works, At The End of the Open Road. Born in Jamaica, his family migrated to the United States of America while he was 17.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Louis Simpson’s The Battle: Formalist Criticism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For two years (between 1943 and 1945), he fought for America during World War II. This experience shaped most of his works when he started writing after the war. He served as a messenger between his company’s headquarters and the soldiers fighting on the front line. Most of his poems and other works are narratives of his experiences as a messenger. The Battle is one of his well known poems that depict the experiences of a mes senger on the front line. In four stanzas and sixteen lines, Louis takes the reader through the horrors of war, which is the major theme of this poem. In this paper, the author is going to provide the reader with a critique of this poem. The poem will be critiqued using the formalist criticism theory. Among the issues that will be addressed in this critique is the structure and organization of the poem, the way the poem begins and how it proceeds from the beginning. The author will also look at how the poem ends, the plot of the work and how this plot is related to the structure of the poem. The Battle: Structure and Organization of the Poem The poem is structured in four stanzas and sixteen lines (Poetry365 1-16). Louis seems to be seeking for a balance in the structure of the poem. This is given the fact that each of the stanzas is made up of four lines, mimicking the four stanzas of the poem. This creates some semblance of proportionality between the stanzas and the whole poem. H owever, the structure of the lines is not uniform throughout the poem. For example, some of the lines are made of two sentences separated by a full stop, a case in point been the second line â€Å"Marched through a forest. Somewhere up ahead† (Poetry360 2). Others are made of single sentences separated by a comma, for example the first line â€Å"Helmet and rifle, pack and overcoat† (Poetry360 1). Still, other lines are made of a single, solid and unbroken sentence, for example the 6th line â€Å"into the clammy earth between the trees† (Poetry360 6). Beginning of the Poem Louis begins the poem by providing the reader with an imagery of a soldier. Though he does not mention the word soldier anywhere, the selection of words in the first line leaves no doubt that the poet is talking of a soldier. He begins by â€Å"Helmet and rifle, pack and overcoat† (Poetry360 1).Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The soldier described in this line is obviously headed for combat, and this is made clear by the inclusion of â€Å"rifle† in his cargo. It is also made clear that the weather is cold, and that is why the soldier carries an overcoat. It is probably in winter, and the soldier is headed to the battle line. Where does it go? The tone that Louis starts with in the first stanza is maintained throughout the poem for the larger part. For example, he starts by using imagery, and this appears in the other stanzas of the poem. For example, in the eleventh line, he talks of â€Å"†¦.The snow was black† (Poetry360 11). Snow is generally white, but by describing it as â€Å"black snow†, Louis conjures in the reader’s mind an image of snow with its purity interfered with by the flow of blood from the fallen and injured soldiers. The poem starts with a description of the soldier embarking from the camp and to the fr ont line. The poem continues to trace the journey of the soldier into the woods, towards the battle field. In the third stanza, Louis describes how the soldier, now on the front line, faces the â€Å"†¦.(the) shells and bullets (sweeping) the icy woods† (Poetry360 10). The poem paints a horrific picture of what the soldier goes through in the battle field. How does the Poem End? The poem ends with the persona telling the reader what they remembered about the battle. It appears that the persona is not involved in combat; he assumes the tone of a bystander. He describes the appearance of the soldiers, â€Å"The tiredness in (their) eyes, (and) how hands looked thin† (Poetry360 14). The only bright thin about the soldier’s appearance is the bright ember around their cigar. The poem closes with the line â€Å"†¦., and the bright ember (of the cigarette)/Would pulse with all the life there was within† (Poetry360 15, 16). This line creates an image of a soldier, who is as frail as the ember of the cigarette he is smoking. The Plot The poem gives the story of soldiers leaving the camp to go to the battle field. Armed with their rifles, they march through the forest, and towards the sound of thudding guns. The story given in this poem does not seem to paint a good picture regarding the battle. The poet describes scenes full of â€Å"black snow†, and if the black color can be taken as the color of coagulated blood on the snow, then it seems there was a lot of bloodshed. Relationship of the Poem’s Plot to its Structure Some comparisons can be drawn between the plot of the poem and its structure. As earlier indicated, the poem structure appears balanced, with four stanzas with four lines each. However, this is in contrast with the plot of the poem. There is nothing balanced about the life of the soldier, or the battle that is being fought. If there was balance in the society, maybe the war would have been unnecessary.Ad vertising We will write a custom essay sample on Louis Simpson’s The Battle: Formalist Criticism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it can be said that the soldiers in the battle and the war in general, is aimed at achieving some balance in the society, balance like that of the poem’s structure. The contradiction between the poem’s structure and the plot extends to individual lines in the poem. For example, in describing the soldier going to war in line 1, the poet describes the soldier putting on his fatigues and taking his weapons from back to front. For example, one would expect the soldier to first put on the overcoat, then heist his pack on his soldiers, take the rifle and finally put on the helmet. But Louis does not see it this way. Instead, the soldier first wears the â€Å"Helmet (then takes the) rifle, pack and overcoat† (Poetry360 1). Conclusion In his poem The Battle, Louis describes soldiers going to the battle line, and what transpires there. The major theme in the poem is the horrors of war. This paper criticized the poem from a formalist perspective. Among the aspects of the poem addressed is the beginning and ending of the poem, the plot of the poem and how the poem is related to its structure. Works Cited Poetry365. The Battle, Louis Simpson. Poetry365. August 9, 2009. Web. This essay on Louis Simpson’s The Battle: Formalist Criticism was written and submitted by user Carolyn S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

1800s Social Work Essays

1800s Social Work Essays 1800s Social Work Essay 1800s Social Work Essay Nineteenth century America was a time of urbanization, industrialization, immigration, overcrowding and as a result, poverty. During this time, social policy was relatively non-existent and financial assistance was the sole responsibility of private or public charities. Women did not have rights or economic independence, as they were typically considered the property of their husbands. During this time, a woman with three children who was abandoned by her husband would receive little or no financial assistance; she may fall under the category of the â€Å"unworthy† poor, as she was not a widow, elderly or physically disabled. The assistance of this women may have changed from the early to late nineteenth century, as feminists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton began to advocate for social reform, and others such as Jane Adams became concerned with the social well being of women. From the beginning to late 1800’s some social reform took place and the federal government began to implement various programs and institutions to assist in the financial well being of the poor. Early 1800’s During the early 1800’s, there weren’t any significant federal programs aimed at assisting the poor. Financial aid was allocated as the responsibility of the local community, local government, or religious charity. People were expected to work and take care of their families unless they were elderly, sick or widowed; these were labeled the â€Å"worthy† poor in need of assistance. Women were the â€Å"property† if their husbands and typically performed work inside of the home to contribute to the financial well being of the family. They were responsible for the production of cloth, clothing and shoes. Additionally, there weren’t any limitations on the working hours, wages or conditions for women and children. During this time, a mother of three abandoned by her husband would have received little or no assistance. She would not fall under the classification of the â€Å"worthy† poor, as she was not a widow, elderly or sick. It is possible that her or her children would work in mills under dangerous conditions and long hours, if her children were over the age of three; child labor was prevalent during this time period. If a white woman was unable to financially support her children, they may become apprentices to families who can support them. This served as an educational opportunity for children to learn a trade. Collectively, an able bodied poor person, such as an abandoned woman was deemed â€Å"lazy and sinful† and may have been sent to a workhouse through enforced labor. As the nineteenth century progressed, industrialization spurred the continued migration to urban cities in search of training and work; this led to overcrowding and poverty. Poverty was primarily blamed on the individual. If a woman with three children needed assistance, any community organizations of the time would assume that the problem was intra-psychic and there was a moral deficiency. To address this concern, middle class reformers felt that the betterment of cities could be achieved through moral reconstitution of individuals and families. Several â€Å"moral building† organizations were created; the New York Association for Improving the conditions of the Poor was established in 1843. Male volunteers would offer religious teachings, work to get the poor to abstain from alcohol, become more self-disciplined and acquire the Protestant Work Ethic. As a result, a woman abandoned by her husband would receive moral teachings in her home rather than any financial assistance. Mid 1800’s Towards the 1840’s, advocates of social reform began to voice their concerns regarding poverty. Dorothea Dix spoke of the need for separate facilities for adult offenders, juveniles and the mentally ill. She also suggested that the Federal government be responsible for the mentally ill and provide them with treatment through hospitalization. In 1845, the first state asylum for the mentally ill was established in Trenton New Jersey. In 1848 she proposed that the federal government give financial assistance to states to build hospitals for the mentally ill and the legislation was passed. However, in 1854 the legislation was vetoed and welfare responsibility was returned to the states. Also in 1848, feminists such as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton convened at the Seneca Falls Convention to declare a goal of equal rights and opportunity in education, employment and legal rights. This would challenge the limited opportunities that existed for an abandoned mother of three. She would have been limited in her education, employment opportunities and political standing. Towards the middle of the century, education increased and the views regarding children’s needs began to change. In an effort to provide education and shelter to needy children, Charles Loring Brace founded the Children’s Aid Society in 1853 New York. He felt that the urban environment was dangerous to children due to crime and delinquency. This organization could have given devastating consequences to an abandoned woman with three children because it was the elementary form of modern foster care. The Children’s Aid Society would remove children from families who could not provide â€Å"proper care† for their children. They would then transport these children to families in rural areas in an effort to provide opportunities in a new, â€Å"safer† environment. A woman deserted by her husband could have very easily been considered and unfit parent, as she requested financial assistance from her counterparts. During this time period, she would be in danger of having her children taken from her care and given to an unfamiliar family where she would no longer be able to contact them. The Children’s Aid Society transported over 50,000 children in a period of 25 years; these children typically became runaways. In 1864, Frederic Le Play completed the first scientific study of poverty; he investigated its causes, consequences and possible solutions. This study may have provided evidence that poverty is not the sole blame of the individual. After the time of the Civil War, 1861-65, the political climate called for a need of health services for the wounded soldiers, as well as the families of the deceased. Many slaves were freed but lacked any education, health care or employment opportunities. Due to this deficiency, the federal government began to take responsibility for the people. In 1865, the Freedman’s Bureau was established; it was the first federal welfare agency and provided health care, education, housing for the freed slaves. In1872, the Bureau ended because the Federal government did not want to facilitate welfare. Late 1800’s Towards the late nineteenth century, ideas of Social Darwinism began to influence society. It was believed those able to work would thrive and live successfully whereas those who weren’t would fail and perish; it was survival of the fittest and intervention for the poor was felt to go against nature. For this reason, financial assistance was not provided to the needy. Middle class reformers continued to assume individual flaws caused poverty. Lack of morals continued to be blamed for the conditions of the poor. However, people began to understand that certain environmental factors were responsible as well and felt that the poor needed some guidance. In 1877, Reverend Steven Gurteen established the first Charity Organization Society in Buffalo, NY, in an effort to serve as an organizing body for all private charities. This organization developed a list of the poor served in their communities so that each person would be limited to services from one charity. In this case, the woman with three children would not be able to reach out to more than one private charity, as her services were recorded. This woman would receive services from the â€Å"friendly visitor†. This was typically a middle-class female volunteer who would visit the home to investigate the living conditions and reasons for poverty. The â€Å"friendly visitor† would come to the home of the woman, inquire about the reasons for which her husband deserted her and teach her about the moral values of the middle class. The goal was to â€Å"fix† the immoral environment so that the woman would be able to uplift herself from circumstance and become able to adequately care for her home and children. She would be given advice on how to correct her problems. Additionally, they would record information about the woman and return it to their agency to better understand life in the slum. The â€Å"friendly visitors† seldom had knowledge or experience with the poor, which caused a huge, disconnect between them and their clients; often the clients suffered from decreased self-esteem. By 1890, there were 4,000 practicing â€Å"friendly visitors†. The recording practices of the visitors led to a better understanding of poverty and its causes. It became understood that the sole responsibility does not fall on the individual. By the end of the 19th century, immigration increased and overcrowding was at its peak. There was a deficit in housing and education. In response, the first settlement house, the Neighborhood Guild, was opened in New York in 1886. In 1889, Jane Adams and Ellen Gates Starr opened the most influential settlement house, known as Hull House. This would have been the first helpful opportunity presented to a mother of three who was deserted by her husband. At Hull House, she would be given a home to live in without the cost of rent. The residents at Hull House were primarily women and immigrants. â€Å"In 1891, Florence Kelley Wischnewetzky was fleeing from her husband and seeking refuge for herself and her three children, ages six, five, and four. ‘We were welcomed as though we had been invited,’ she wrote thirty-five years later in her memoirs†¦Jane Adams supplied Kelley with room, board and employment. † Hull house provided families with daycare and kindergarten services, education and training for residents, culture nights to become familiar with various cultures, a library and entertainment. Additionally, women in settlement houses worked to advocate for housing, public health care and improved working conditions for men, women and children. The Hull House residents conducted campaigns, which led to the passing of legislature, which mandated an eight-hour workday for women and children in Illinois. As knowledge of the poor grew through work in the settlement houses and friendly visitors, a growing need for a formal education was presented. In 1898 the first school for social workers was established, The New York School of Philanthropy (Columbia University). Conclusion In the 1800s, a woman with three children deserted by her husband would have faced many hardships in obtaining any financial assistance. Social welfare and charity were the responsibility of the community and the needy were distinguished based on their â€Å"worthiness†. Able-bodied unemployed people were considered unworthy and sinful. For this reason, moral teaching was the primary means of relief. However, as the 19th century progressed and urbanization led to an increase in poverty, social reformers such as Jane Addams began to take notice and advocated for the need to assist immigrants in obtaining housing, heath care, and employment. Throughout the century, the federal government assumed some responsibility for the welfare of the people, as in the Freedman’s Bureau but would abruptly re-delegate the responsibility to the states. However, the creation of the Charity Organization Society demonstrated that social welfare relief was evolving to become an increasingly centralized institution. The 1890’s settlement movement would be the first major form of assistance for a deserted mother of three, where she would be able to obtain much needed services for her and her children.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Puerto Rico Court System Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Puerto Rico Court System - Research Paper Example There are various weaknesses that could be acknowledged out of the current judicial systems and this is as documented by Griffin and Abbot (2006). Understanding the strengths and the weaknesses would undoubtedly go a long way in informing what should constitute a desirable judicial system. One of the strong points in Griffin and Abbot (2006) is that they develop a comparative approach to judicial systems, and this approach is advantageous because it does not only give examples of flaws in practice that should be addressed but also some strengths that could be adopted, such as by newly established states. According to Griffin and Abbot (2006), U.S judicial system is constituted in a federal manner whereby each state within the federation has a different judicial system. Under the state court system, one is regarded innocent until proven guilty. This implies that the burden to prove one’s innocence lies with the state and not the person being accused. The system is made stronger because it is the responsibility of the state to find someone guilty thus making a person optimistic about their innocence prevailing. Another aspect of this judicial process is that a criminal is assured of a fair, quick trial as well as enjoy the privilege of being judged by jurists. This means that not a single judge can decide on one’s fate as it is the case in other countries. It also implies that a person who is innocent has all the evidence evaluated prior to making the sentence. These elements are undoubtedly the strong points of judicial systems and inform any benchmark to constitute a de sirable court system such as for a newly established state... These elements are undoubtedly the strong points of judicial systems and inform any benchmark to constitute a desirable court system such as for a newly established state. However, there is a limitation to this in the sense that much of the evidence may be suspended due to the procedure. A cop collecting evidence must do so according to set down statutes otherwise they could be done away with. In this case, evidence on tape cannot be taken into consideration if the accused was not aware that a recording was taking place as he was being interrogated by the police. This has led to guilty people walking away scot-free for crimes they have committed. This is because the passing of sentence is recommended by the same panel of jurists who determined his or her case the process becomes fair. Furthermore, the process gives judges a lot of freedom when sentencing criminals. Reeves (2008), cites examples of cases where two people get different timeframes when they have committed the same felon y. That tends to be one of the shortcomings of the state judicial process. The article proposes one guideline, neither should there be minimum nor maximum sentence.Unfortunately, discrimination when passing maximum sentence seems to be confined to black males, as the majority of the population gets fair sentencing.